E&I Governance Policy - Bills
Bills related to E&I Governance Policy Report are sorted first by Congressional Session (including years), and then by bill number. A short summary is attached to some bills.
- 1 96th Congress (January 3, 1979 – January 3, 1981)
- 2 97th Congress (January 3, 1981 – January 3, 1983)
- 3 98th Congress (January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1985)
- 4 99 (January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1987)
- 5 99th Congress (January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1987)
- 6 100th Congress (January 3, 1987 – January 3, 1989)
- 7 101st Congress (January 3, 1989 – January 3, 1991)
- 8 102nd Congress (January 3, 1991 – January 3, 1993)
- 9 103rd Congress (January 3, 1993 – January 3, 1995)
- 10 105th Congress (January 3, 1997 – January 3, 1999)
- 11 106th Congress (January 3, 1999 – January 3, 2001)
- 12 107th Congress (January 3, 2001 – January 3, 2003)
- 13 108th Congress (January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2005)
- 14 109th Congress (January 3, 2005 – January 3, 2007)
- 15 110th Congress (January 3, 2007 – January 3, 2009)
- 16 111th Congress (January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2011)
- 17 112th Congress (January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2013)
- 18 113th Congress (January 3, 2013 – January 3, 2015)
- 19 114th Congress (January 3, 2015 – January 3, 2017)
96th Congress (January 3, 1979 – January 3, 1981)
A bill to provide for the designation and conservation of certain public lands in the State of Alaska, including the designation of units of the National Park, National Wildlife Refuge, National Forest, National Wild and Scenic Rivers, and National Wilderness Preservation Systems, and for other purposes.
The Bayh–Dole Act or Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act (Pub. L. 96-517, December 12, 1980) is United States legislation dealing with intellectual property arising from federal government-funded research. Sponsored by two senators, Birch Bayh of Indiana and Bob Dole of Kansas, the Act was adopted in 1980, is codified at 94 Stat. 3015, and in 35 U.S.C. § 200-212, and is implemented by 37 C.F.R. 401. The key change made by Bayh–Dole was in ownership of inventions made with federal funding. Before the Bayh–Dole Act, federal research funding contracts and grants obligated inventors (wherever they worked) to assign inventions they made using federal funding to the federal government. Bayh–Dole permits a university, small business, or non-profit institution to elect to pursue ownership of an invention in preference to the government.
Amends the Small Business Act to authorize Small Business Administration (SBA) loan program levels, including salaries and expenses, for fiscal years 1981 through 1984. Authorizes necessary appropriations for fiscal year 1985 and thereafter for general SBA programs which do not require specific authorizations.
97th Congress (January 3, 1981 – January 3, 1983)
This act authorizes appropriations to the Patent and Trademark office in 1982. $76 million dollars available for fiscal year 1983 and in years 84 and 85 such sums may also be provided along with supplemental amounts
98th Congress (January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1985)
The deficit reduction act attempts to reduce the federal deficit and provide tax freezes, reforms and certain tax reductions.
A bill to amend title 35, United States Code, to increase the effectiveness of the patent laws.
The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act (Public Law 98-417), informally known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, is a 1984 United States federal law which encourages the manufacture of generic drugs by the pharmaceutical industry and established the modern system of government generic drug regulation in the United States. Representative Henry Waxman of California and Senator Orrin Hatch of Utah sponsored the act.
99 (January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1987)
Tax Reform Act of 1986 The tax reform act involves revising income tax rates for individuals, estates and trusts. There are general accounting provisions for small businesses.
99th Congress (January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1987)
100th Congress (January 3, 1987 – January 3, 1989)
Summary: Improve SBA operations through reporting and administrative appointments. Capital Ownership Development Program participants must prepare various operations and capabilities.
Title I: Congressional Findings and Purposes - Sets forth congressional findings with respect to the Capital Ownership Development Program (Program) administered by the Small Business Administration (SBA) and the ways in which this Act proposes to improve it. Title II: Program Organization and Participation Standards - Amends Small Business Act provisions governing admission to the Capital Ownership Development Program.
Title III: Business Development - Requires the SBA to divide the Program into two stages: (1) a developmental stage; and (2) a transitional stage. Title IV: Improved Management and Program Integrity - Amends the Small Business Act to declare that the Associate Administrator for Minority Small Business and Capital Ownership Development shall be a career appointee and an employee in either the competitive service or the Senior Executive Service. Makes the position a career reserved position.
Title V: Contract Planning; Goal Setting and Reviews - Directs the SBA to require each Program participant to prepare an annual statement describing its various contract capabilities. Requires executive agencies that report to the Federal Procurement Data System contract activity with a value exceeding $50,000,000 in any fiscal year, to prepare and submit to the SBA Administrator and to the Director of the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization a forecast of anticipated contract opportunities. Lists required forecast contents and requires that they be available to small business concerns.
Summary: Reform US trade practices as it’s enacted from FTC and the USTR. Set US policy on how to handle trade practices, and how to respond to unfair trade practices.
Title I: Trade, Customs, and Tariff Laws - Sets forth congressional findings and purposes with respect to U.S. trade. Subtitle A: United States Trade Agreements - Part 1: Negotiation and Implementation of Trade Agreements - Declares that the overall U.S. negotiating objectives with respect to trade agreements are to obtain: (1) more open and equitable market access; (2) the reduction or elimination of barriers and other trade-distorting practices; and (3) a more effective system of international trading procedures. Part 2: Hearings and Advice Concerning Negotiations - Requires the President, in connection with any proposed trade agreements under this Act, to publish and furnish the International Trade Commission (ITC) with lists of articles which may be considered for modification or continuance of duties, continuance of duty-free or excise treatment, or additional duties. Authorizes the President, in connection with non-tariff trade agreements, to publish and furnish the ITC with lists of non-tariff matters which may be considered for modification. Part 3: Other Trade Agreement and Negotiation Provisions - Repeals the Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Materials Importation Act of 1982.
Subtitle B: Implementation of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule - Declares that the Congress approves the U.S. accession to the International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System. Requires the President to submit a copy of each final instrument of the Convention to the Congress. Amends the Tariff Act of 1930 to require the President to make such modifications to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule as are necessary to conform the old Tariff Schedules to the format of the Convention.
Subtitle C: Response to Unfair International Trade Practices - Part I: Enforcement of United States Rights Under Trade Agreements and Response to Certain Foreign Trade Practices - Amends the Trade Act of 1974 to require the USTR, subject to the direction of the President, to take specified action to enforce U.S. trade rights under an agreement or to eliminate unfair trade practices if the USTR determines that: (1) the rights of the United States under any agreement are being denied; or (2) a foreign act, policy, or practice violates or otherwise denies U.S. benefits under any agreement, or burdens or restricts U.S. commerce. Sets forth circumstances under which the USTR is not required to take such action.
Summary: Extend patents rights for animal drug products.
A bill to amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to authorize abbreviated new animal drug applications and to amend title 35, United States Code, to authorize the extension of the patents for animal drug products.
101st Congress (January 3, 1989 – January 3, 1991)
Summary: NDAA bill: DoD Appropriations authorization.
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 - Division A: Department of Defense Authorizations - Title I: Procurement - Part A: Funding Authorizations - Authorizes appropriations for FY 1991 for the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force for the procurement of aircraft, missiles, weapons and tracked combat vehicles, ammunition, shipbuilding and conversion, and other procurement. Authorizes appropriations for such fiscal year for the defense agencies, the Defense Inspector General, the reserve components for procurement, and for the destruction of lethal chemical weapons under the chemical demilitarization program. Authorizes the Secretary of the military department concerned to use funds appropriated for FY 1991 to enter into multiyear procurement contracts for specified defense programs. Repeals certain procurement and research and development (R&D) authorizations under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989. Part B: B-2 Aircraft Programs - Limits the amount of Air Force procurement funds under this Act that may be obligated for procurement of B-2 aircraft. Part C: Other Strategic Programs - Prohibits FY 1991 Air Force procurement funds from being obligated for the SRAM II missile program until the Secretary of Defense makes certain certifications to the Congress concerning the testing of such program.
Summary: SBA appropriation bill. Focus on rural areas and its small business owners.
Small Business Administration Reauthorization and Amendments Act of 1990 - Title I: Authorization of Small Business Administration Programs - Amends the Small Business Act to authorize appropriations for specified programs through FY 1994. Authorizes transfers from the disaster loan revolving fund for the administrative expenses of the Small Business Administration (SBA). Title II: Amendments to the Small Business Act and Related Acts - Part A: Small Business Act - Amends the Small Business Act to modify the pro rata share guidelines for grant recipients in the small business development center program. Part B: Small Business Investment Act - Amends the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 to prescribe eligibility guidelines for assistance under the development company program. Sets forth loan limitations for certain small business concerns. Title III: Assistance for Rural Small Business Concerns - Rural Small Business Enhancement Act of 1990 - Amends the Small Business Act to establish within SBA an Office of Rural Affairs (the Office) to strive to achieve an equitable distribution of SBA financial assistance for rural small business concerns. Title IV: Miscellaneous Amendments - Amends the National Defense Authorization Act to extend for two years the role of the Government Printing Office in a certain Department of Defense program to expand participation by disadvantaged small business concerns and minority institutions of higher learning in Department of Defense contracting opportunities.
Summary: Innovation for Clean Air Act regulation.
A bill to amend the Clean Air Act to provide for attainment and maintenance of health protective national ambient air quality standards, and for other purposes. Sec. 101. General planning requirements. Sec. 102. General provisions for nonattainment areas. Sec. 103. Additional provisions for ozone nonattainment areas. Sec. 104. Additional provisions for carbon monoxide nonattainment areas. Sec. 105. Additional provisions for particulate matter (PM-10) nonattainment areas. Sec. 106. Additional provisions for areas designated nonattainment for sulfur oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. Sec. 107. Provisions related to Indian tribes. Sec. 108. Miscellaneous provisions. Sec. 109. Interstate pollution. Sec. 110. Conforming amendments. Sec. 111. Transportation system impacts on clean air.
Summary: Prices and quantity support for agricultural and consumer products.
Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 - Title I: Dairy - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set forth the dairy program for 1991 through 1995, including milk price supports. Title II: Wool and Mohair - Amends the National Wool Act of 1954 to extend the wool and mohair price support program through 1995. Title III: Wheat - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set forth the price support and acreage reduction programs for the 1991 through 1995 crops of wheat. Title IV: Feed Grains - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set forth the price support and acreage reduction programs for the 1991 through 1995 crops of feed grains. Title V: Cotton - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set forth the price support and acreage reduction programs for the 1991 through 1995 crops of upland cotton. Title VI: Rice - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set forth the price support and acreage reduction programs for the 1991 through 1995 crops of rice. Title VII: Oilseeds - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set forth the price support program for oilseeds for the 1991 through 1995 marketing years. Title VIII: Peanuts - Amends the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 to set forth the program for the 1991 through 1995 crops of peanuts, including price supports. Title IX: Sugar - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set forth the price support program for the 1991 through 1995 crops of sugar beets and sugarcane. Title X: Honey - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set forth the 1991 through 1995 honey price support program. Title XI: General Commodity Provisions - Subtitle A: Acreage Base and Yield System - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set forth 1991 through 1995 acreage base and yield system provisions.
102nd Congress (January 3, 1991 – January 3, 1993)
Summary: SBA amendment for micro-loans and guaranteed loans.
Small Business Credit and Business Opportunity Enhancement Act of 1992 - Title I: Improved Access to Credit - Subtitle A: Section 7(A) Guaranteed Loan Program - Small Business Credit Crunch Relief Act of 1992 - Amends the Small Business Act to limit the amount of deferred participation loans authorized by such Act to the net amount of loan principal which is guaranteed by the Small Business Administration (SBA) (not including any amount which is not guaranteed). Declares that such loans are available for a national program, but restricts to ten percent of annual authorizations SBA use of such funds for special or pilot programs directed to identified sectors of the small business community or to specific geographic regions. Authorizes deferred participation loans and other financings in FY 1992 through 1994, including general business loans, pollution control loan guarantees, and development company loans and debenture guarantees. Directs the Administrator of the SBA, when practicable, to: (1) accord preference to small business concerns which use or purchase equipment and supplies produced in the United States; and (2) encourage small business concerns receiving such assistance to purchase such equipment and supplies. Subtitle B: Microloan Demonstration Program Amendments - Microlending Expansion Act of 1992 - Directs the Administrator, in selecting intermediaries to participate in the microloan demonstration program, to give priority to those applicants that provide loans in amounts averaging no more than $7,500. Title II: Amendments to the Small Business Act and Related Acts - Subtitle A: Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program - Amends the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program Act of 1988 to extend the Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program, the Alternative Program for Clothing and Textiles, and the program to expand small business participation in dredging through September 30, 1996.
Summary: NDAA Bill. DoD Appropriations.
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993 - Division A: Department of Defense Authorizations - Title I: Procurement - Subtitle A: Funding Authorizations - Authorizes appropriations to the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force for FY 1993 for: (1) aircraft; (2) missiles; (3) weapons and tracked combat vehicles; (4) ammunition; (5) shipbuilding and conversion; and (6) other procurement. Authorizes appropriations for FY 1993 for: (1) the defense agencies; (2) the Defense Inspector General; (3) the reserves and National Guard; and (4) the chemical demilitarization program. Authorizes the Secretary of the Air Force to use funds authorized under this Act to enter into multiyear procurement contracts for the procurement of satellites under the Defense Support Program. Subtitle B: Army Programs - Prohibits the use of any funds appropriated for the Army for FY 1991 or 1992 from being used to initiate or implement closure of any portion of the tank industrial base. Amends the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 to revise the amount authorized under such Act for the remanufacture of M1 tanks to the M1A2 configuration.
Summary: Energy efficiency regulations for state-level agencies.
Energy Policy Act of 1992 - Title I: Energy Efficiency - Subtitle A: Buildings - Amends the Energy Conservation and Production Act to set a deadline by which each State must certify to the Secretary of Energy (the Secretary) whether its energy efficiency standards with respect to residential and commercial building codes meet or exceed those of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) Model Energy Code, 1992, and of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, respectively. Subtitle B: Utilities - Amends the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) to mandate that: (1) each electric utility employ integrated resource planning; (2) the rates for a State regulated electric utility are such that its outlay for demand side management measures (including energy conservation and energy efficiency resources), are at least as profitable as those for the construction of new generation, transmission, and distribution equipment; (3) the rates charged by any electric utility are such that it is encouraged to make outlays for all cost-effective improvements in energy efficient power generation, transmission and distribution; and (4) such rates and charges are implemented in a manner that assures that utilities are not granted unfair competitive advantages over small businesses engaged in transactions regarding demand side energy management measures. Subtitle C: Appliance and Equipment Energy Efficiency Standards - Directs the Secretary to provide financial assistance to support a voluntary national window rating program that will develop energy ratings and labels for windows and window systems. Requires the National Fenestration Rating Council to develop such rating program according to specified procedures. Requires the Secretary to develop specified alternative rating systems if a national voluntary window rating program consistent with this Act has not been developed. Variety of things for other forms of energy
Summary: SBIR program implementation through the SBA
A bill to provide the Administrator of the Small Business Administration continued authority to administer the Small Business Innovation Research Program, and for other purposes. Sec. 101. Short title. Sec. 102. Findings and purposes. Sec. 103. Amendments to small business innovation research program. Sec. 104. Extension of SBIR program. Sec. 105. Reports of the Comptroller General. Sec. 106. Recommendations of the Secretary of Defense. (a) FINDINGS- The Congress finds that-- (1) the small business innovation research program established under the Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982 (hereafter in this Act referred to as the ‘SBIR’ program) has been a successful method of involving small business concerns in Federal research and development; (2) the small business innovation research program has been an effective catalyst for the development of technological innovations by small business concerns; (3) small business innovation research program participants have provided high quality research and development in a cost-effective manner; (4) the innovative products and services developed by small business concerns participating in the small business innovation research program have been important to the national defense, as well as to the missions of the other participating Federal agencies; (5) the small business innovation research program has effectively stimulated the commercialization of technology developed through Federal research and development, benefiting both the public and private sectors of the Nation; (6) by encouraging the development and commercialization of technological innovations, the small business innovation research program has created jobs, expanded business opportunities for small firms, stimulated the development of new products and services, and improved the competitiveness of the Nation’s high technology industries; (7) the small business innovation research program has also helped to increase exports from small business concerns; (8) despite the general success of the small business innovation research program, the proportion of Federal research and development funds received by small business concerns has not increased over the life of the program, but has remained at 3 percent; and (9) although the participating Federal agencies have successfully implemented most aspects of the small business innovation research program, additional outreach efforts are necessary to stimulate increased participation of socially and economically disadvantaged small business concerns. (b) PURPOSES- The purposes of this title are-- (1) to expand and improve the small business innovation research program; (2) to emphasize the program’s goal of increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through Federal research and development; (3) to increase small business participation in Federal research and development; and (4) to improve the Federal Government’s dissemination of information concerning the small business innovation research program, particularly with regard to program participation by women-owned small business concerns and by socially and economically disadvantaged small business concerns.
103rd Congress (January 3, 1993 – January 3, 1995)
Summary: Budget balancing act which includes agricultural and energy trade and production regulations.
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 - Title I: Agricultural Programs - Agricultural Reconciliation Act of 1993 - Subtitle A: Commodity Programs - Amends the Agricultural Act of 1949 to extend specified upland cotton loan, payment, acreage reduction, and marketing loan programs. Subtitle B: Rural Electrification - Amends the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 to authorize refinancing and prepayment of Federal Financing Bank loans guaranteed by the Rural Electrification Administration. Sets forth penalty and loan term provisions. Subtitle C: Agricultural Trade - Amends the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 to eliminate: (1) certain acreage reduction requirements for grain sorghum and barley; and (2) specified authority of the Secretary to waive certain acreage reduction requirements with regard to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (Sec. 1302) Amends the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 to extend and reduce from current levels the authorization of appropriations for the marketing promotion program. Revises such program to: (1) permit assistance, with exceptions, only to counter unfair trade practices; (2) give priority to small entities; (3) limit the assistance period; (4) require trade organization contributions; and (5) prohibit assistance for tobacco marketing. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (or OBRA-93) was a federal law that was enacted by the 103rd United States Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton. It has also been referred to, unofficially, as the Deficit Reduction Act of 1993. Part XIII, which dealt with taxes and is also called the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993 …
Summary: NDAA Bill. DoD Appropriations.
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994 - Division A: Department of Defense Authorizations - Title I: Procurement - Subtitle A: Authorization of Appropriations - Authorizes appropriations for FY 1994 for procurement for the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, defense agencies, the Defense Inspector General, and the reserve components of the armed forces. (Sec. 107) Authorizes appropriations for FY 1994 for the: (1) chemical demilitarization program (the destruction of lethal chemical agents and munitions); and (2) National Shipbuilding Initiative. (Sec. 109) Prohibits the Secretary of the Navy from entering into a multiyear procurement contract for the F/A-18C/D aircraft program. Subtitle B: Army Programs - Earmarks FY 1994 funds for the AH-64 Apache aircraft and the AHIP aircraft. Directs the Secretary to conduct a study of Army requirements for light utility helicopter modernization. (Sec. 113) Earmarks specified FY 1993 funds for the procurement of nuclear, biological, and chemical protective masks. Prohibits new funding for the Improved Chemical Agent Monitor program. Authorizes the reprogramming of funds for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer Quickstart Program. Subtitle C: Navy Programs - Prohibits the further use of funds for the Seawolf attack submarine other than long-lead components for the vessel designated as SSN-23.
Summary: Implemented GATT for the US. Ensured more copyright protection in US.
The Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA; Pub.L. 103–465, 108 Stat. 4809, enacted December 8, 1994) is an Act of Congress in the United States that implemented in U.S. law the Marrakech Agreement of 1994. The Marrakech Agreement was part of the Uruguay Round of negotiations which transformed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) into the World Trade Organization (WTO). One of its effects is to give United States copyright protection to some works that had previously been in the public domain in the United States.
Summary: Reform education institutions on a K-12 level. Mentions technology in education institutions.
The Improving America's Schools Act (IASA) of 1994 was a major part of the Clinton administration's efforts to reform education. It was signed in the gymnasium of Framingham High School (MA). It reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. It included provisions or reforms for: The Title 1 program, providing extra help to disadvantaged students and holding schools accountable for their results at the same level as other students charter schools Safe and Drug-free schools Eisenhower Professional Development Major increases in bilingual and immigrant education funding Impact aid Education technology and other programs.
Summary: Streamlines acquisition laws for US Federal government. Focuses on NASA, Coast Guard, DoD, Military forces.
A bill to revise and streamline the acquisition laws of the Federal Government, and for other purposes. Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 - Title I: Contract Formation - Subtitle A: Competition Statutes - Part I: Armed Services Acquisitions - Amends the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984 (CICA) and other Federal procurement law with respect to subject agency (National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Coast Guard, Department of Defense, and respective military departments) procurement.
105th Congress (January 3, 1997 – January 3, 1999)
Summary: Copyright protections through World Intellectual Property Organization treaty implementations.
Title I: WIPO Treaties Implementation Title II: Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Title III: Computer Maintenance or Repair Copyright Exemption Title IV: Miscellaneous Provisions Title V: Protection of Certain Original Designs Digital Millennium Copyright Act - Title I: WIPO Treaties Implementation - WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act of 1998 - Amends Federal copyright law to grant copyright protection to: (1) sound recordings that were first fixed in a treaty party (a country or intergovernmental organization other than the United States that is a party to specified international copyright and other agreements); and (2) pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works incorporated in a building or other structure or an architectural work embodied in a building located in the United States or a treaty party. Treats works published in the United States or a treaty party within 30 days after publication in a foreign nation that is not a treaty party as first published in the United States or a treaty party for purposes of conferring protection.
Summary: Appropriations authorization for mass transit and transportation infrastructure.
To authorize funds for Federal-aid highways, highway safety programs, and transit programs, and for other purposes. Title I: Federal-Aid Highways - Subtitle A: Authorizations and Programs - Authorizes appropriations from the Highway Trust Fund, other than the Mass Transit Account (HTF), for the following: (1) the Interstate Maintenance Program (IM); (2) the National Highway System (NHS); (3) the Bridge Program; (4) the Surface Transportation Program (STP); (5) the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ); (6) the Appalachian Development Highway System Program; (7) the Recreational Trails Program; (8) the Federal Lands Highways Program (FLHP); (9) National Corridor Planning and Development and Coordinated Border Infrastructure Programs; (10) Construction of Ferry Boats and Ferry Terminal Facilities; (11) the National Scenic Byways Program; (12) the Value Pricing Pilot Program; (13) the High Priority Projects Program; (14) Highway Use Tax Evasion Projects; and (15) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Highway Program. Directs that not less than ten percent of the amounts made available under titles I (Federal-Aid Highways), III (Federal Transit Administration Programs), and V (Transportation Research) of this Act be expended with small business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals. Requires: (1) States to annually survey and compile a list of disadvantaged business enterprises (DBEs) and to make certain written notifications to the Secretary of Transportation (the Secretary); and (2) the Secretary to establish minimum uniform criteria for State governments to use in certifying whether a concern qualifies. Sets forth provisions regarding compliance with court orders and review of the impact throughout the United States of administering DBE requirements.
Summary: Reauthorize microloans and other SBA programs.
An original bill to reauthorize the programs of the Small Business Administration including microloan program, small business investment company program, certified development company program and more.
106th Congress (January 3, 1999 – January 3, 2001)
Summary: Modifies SBA to focus on Veterans and service-disabled veterans who are small business owners.
Veterans Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development Act of 1999 - Title I: General Provisions - Amends the Small Business Act (the Act) to revise or add definitions. Title II: Veterans Business Development - Designates the position of Associate Administrator for Veterans Business Development. Establishes the Office of Veterans Business Development, to be administered by such Associate Administrator, who shall be responsible for the formulation, execution, and promotion of policies and programs of the Small Business Administration (SBA) that provide assistance to small businesses owned and controlled by veterans and service-disabled veterans (veteran small businesses).
Summary: DoD Appropriation Bill.
An original bill to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2000 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe personnel strengths for such fiscal year for the Armed Forces, and for other purposes. National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 - Division A: Department of Defense Authorizations - Title I: Procurement - Subtitle A: Authorization of Appropriations - Authorizes appropriations for FY 2000 to the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, and Air Force for aircraft, missiles, weapons and tracked combat vehicles, ammunition, shipbuilding and conversion, and other procurement. (Sec. 104) Authorizes appropriations for FY 2000 for: (1) defense-wide procurement; (2) reserve procurements; (3) the Defense Inspector General; (4) the chemical demilitarization program; and (5) Department of Defense (DOD) health care programs.
107th Congress (January 3, 2001 – January 3, 2003)
Summary: No Child Left Behind; education reform.
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) was a U.S. Act of Congress which reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; it included Title I provisions applying to disadvantaged students. It supported standards-based education reform based on the premise that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals could improve individual outcomes in education. The Act required states to develop assessments in basic skills. To receive federal school funding, states had to give these assessments to all students at select grade levels. The Act did not assert a national achievement standard. Each individual state developed its own standards. NCLB expanded the federal role in public education through further emphasis on annual testing, annual academic progress, report cards, and teacher qualifications, as well as significant changes in funding. By 2015, criticism from right, left, and center had accumulated so much that a bipartisan Congress stripped away all the national features of No Child Left Behind. Its replacement, the Every Student Succeeds Act, turned the remnants over to the states.
Summary: Agricultural subsidies appropriation bill.
The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, also known as the 2002 Farm Bill, includes ten titles, addressing a great variety of issues related to agriculture, ecology, energy, trade, and nutrition. The act directs approximately 16.5 billion dollars of funding toward agricultural subsidies each year. These subsidies have a dramatic effect on the production of grains, oilseeds, and upland cotton. The specialized nature of the farm bill, as well as the size and timing of the bill, made its passage highly contentious.
108th Congress (January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2005)
Summary: Overhaul of Medicare through “MMA”.
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (also called the Medicare Modernization Act or MMA) is a federal law of the United States, enacted in 2003. It produced the largest overhaul of Medicare in the public health program's 38-year history. To amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide for a voluntary program for prescription drug coverage under the Medicare Program, to modernize the Medicare Program, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow a deduction to individuals for amounts contributed to health savings security accounts and health savings accounts, to provide for the disposition of unused health benefits in cafeteria plans and flexible spending arrangements, and for other purposes.
Summary: Read the bill description above.
To amend title 17, United States Code, to replace copyright arbitration royalty panels with Copyright Royalty Judges.
Summary: Appropriations for subsidies, financing, and trade (mostly in the agricultural sector).
Making appropriations for foreign operations, export financing, and related programs for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2005, and for other purposes. Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005 - Division A: Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Programs Appropriations, 2005 - Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2005 - Title I: Agricultural Programs -Appropriates FY 2005 funds for the following Department of Agriculture (Department) programs and services: (1) Office of the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary); (2) executive operations, including Homeland Security Staff; (3) Office of the Chief Information Officer; (4) Common Computing Environment; (5) Office of the Chief Financial Officer; (6) working capital fund; (7) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights; (8) Office of Civil Rights; (9) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration; (10) agriculture buildings and facilities and rental payments; (11) hazardous materials management; (12) departmental administration; (13) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations; (14) Office of Communications; (15) Office of the Inspector General; (16) Office of the General Counsel; (17) Office of the Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics; (18) Economic Research Service; (19) National Agricultural Statistics Service; (20) Agricultural Research Service; (21) Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service; (22) Office of the Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs; (23) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; (24) Agricultural Marketing Service; (25) Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration; (26) Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety; (27) Food Safety and Inspection Service; (28) Office of the Under Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services; (29) Farm Service Agency; (30) Risk Management Agency; (31) Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Fund; and (32) Commodity Credit Corporation Fund.
109th Congress (January 3, 2005 – January 3, 2007)
Summary: Appropriations bill for transportation infrastructure, which includes in a clause that a portion of new projects must consider small business owners and the disavantaged
To authorize funds for Federal-aid highways, highway safety programs, and transit programs, and for other purposes. Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users or SAFETEA-LU - Title I: Federal-Aid Highways - Subtitle A: Authorization of Programs - (Sec. 1101) Authorizes appropriations through FY2009 for highway programs out of the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), including: (1) the Interstate maintenance program; (2) the National Highway System (NHS); (3) the bridge program; (4) the surface transportation program; (5) the congestion mitigation and air quality improvement program; (6) the highway safety improvement program; (7) the Appalachian development highway system program; (8) the recreational trails program; (9) the federal lands highways program; (10) the national corridor infrastructure improvement program; (11) the coordinated border infrastructure program; (12) the national scenic byways program; (13) construction of ferry boats and ferry terminal facilities; (14) the Puerto Rico highway program; (15) the projects of national and regional significance program; (16) the high priority projects program; (17) the safe routes to school program; (18) the deployment of magnetic levitation transportation projects; (19) the national corridor planning and development and coordinated border infrastructure programs (FY2005 only); (20) highways for life; and (21) highway use tax evasion projects. Requires that a specified percentage of such funds be expended through small business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals.
Summary: Energy policy for the US. Focus on loans.
The Energy Policy Act of (Pub.L. 109–58) is a bill passed by the United States Congress on July 29, 2005, and signed into law by President George W. Bush on August 8, 2005, at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The act, described by proponents as an attempt to combat growing energy problems, changed US energy policy by providing tax incentives and loan guarantees for energy production of various types. Has incentives for innovative technology
110th Congress (January 3, 2007 – January 3, 2009)
Summary: Broad legislations to increase innovation, competitiveness, R&D. Created the National Science and Technology Summit
To invest in innovation through research and development, and to improve the competitiveness of the United States. America COMPETES Act or America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science Act - Title I: Office of Science and Technology Policy; Government-Wide Science - (Sec. 1001) Directs the President to: (1) convene a National Science and Technology Summit to examine the health and direction of the United States' science, technology, engineering, and mathematics enterprises; and (2) issue a report on Summit results. Requires, beginning with the President's budget submission for the fiscal year following the conclusion of the Summit and for each of the following four budget submissions, the analytical perspectives component of the budget that describes the research and development (R&D) priorities to include a description of how those priorities relate to the conclusions and recommendations of the Summit.
Summary: Energy use reduction and efficiency improvements
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Pub.L. 110-140 originally named the Clean Energy Act of 2007) is an Act of Congress concerning the energy policy of the United States. As part of the Democratic Party's 100-Hour Plan during the 110th Congress, it was introduced in the United States House of Representatives by Representative Nick Rahall of West Virginia, along with 198 cosponsors. Despite Rahall becoming 1 of only 4 Democrats to oppose the final bill, it passed in the House without amendment in January 2007. When the Act was introduced in the Senate in June 2007, it was combined with Senate Bill S. 1419: Renewable Fuels, Consumer Protection, and Energy Efficiency Act of 2007. This amended version passed the Senate on June 21, 2007. After further amendments and negotiation between the House and Senate, a revised bill passed both houses on December 18, 2007 and President Bush, a Republican, signed it into law on December 19, 2007, in response to his "Twenty in Ten" challenge to reduce gasoline consumption by 20% in 10 years. The stated purpose of the act is “to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security, to increase the production of clean renewable fuels, to protect consumers, to increase the efficiency of products, buildings, and vehicles, to promote research on and deploy greenhouse gas capture and storage options, and to improve the energy performance of the Federal Government, and for other purposes.”. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi promoted the Act as a way of lowering energy costs to consumers. The bill followed another major piece of energy legislation, the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The bill originally sought to cut subsidies to the petroleum industry in order to promote petroleum independence and different forms of alternative energy. These tax changes were ultimately dropped after opposition in the Senate, and the final bill focused on automobile fuel economy, development of biofuels, and energy efficiency in public buildings and lighting.
111th Congress (January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2011)
Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009: Designates specified federal lands in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia, as wilderness and as either a new component, or an addition to an existing component, of the National Wilderness Preservation Systems. Withdraws all federal land within the Area from: (1) all forms of entry, appropriation, or disposal under the public land laws; (2) location, entry, and patent under the mining laws; and (3) disposition under all laws relating to mineral and geothermal leasing.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Amends the Public Health Service Act to prohibit a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. Permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. Declares that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits that are not essential health benefits to the extent that such limits are otherwise permitted.
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act: Establishes the Financial Stability Oversight Council (Council), consisting of the heads of specified federal financial regulatory bodies and chaired by the Secretary of the Treasury. Requires the Council, among other things, to: (1) identify risks to U.S. financial stability that could arise from the material financial distress or failure, or ongoing activities, of large, interconnected bank holding companies or nonbank financial companies, or that could arise outside the financial services marketplace; (2) promote market discipline, by eliminating expectations on the part of shareholders, creditors, and counterparties of such companies that the Government will shield them from losses in the event of failure; (3) respond to emerging threats to the stability of the financial system.
To invest in innovation through research and development, to improve the competitiveness of the United States, and for other purposes. Involves the creation of a committee under the National Science and Technology council that involves all federal agencies with programs in support of STEM education.
Small Business Jobs Act of 2010: Amends the Small Business Act to increase temporarily (until January 1, 2011) to 90% the maximum Small Business Administration (SBA) participation in a loan on a deferred basis under the section 7(a) (general small business loans) guaranteed loan program. Reduces SBA participation in a loan on a deferred basis, after December 31, 2010, from 90% back to: (1) 75% of a loan balance exceeding $150,000; and (2) 85% of a loan balance equal to or less than $150,000.
112th Congress (January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2013)
The Leahy–Smith America Invents Act (AIA) is a United States federal statute that was passed by Congress and was signed into law by President Barack Obama on September 16, 2011. The law represents the most significant change to the U.S. patent system since 1952, and closely resembles previously proposed legislation in the Senate in its previous session (Patent Reform Act of 2009). The Act switches the U.S. patent system from a "first to invent" to a "first inventor to file" system, eliminates interference proceedings, and develops post-grant opposition. Its central provisions went into effect on September 16, 2012 and on March 16, 2013.
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 authorizes appropriations for FY2012 for the Department of Defense (DOD) for procurement for the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, Air Force, and defense-wide activities, in amounts specified in the funding table in Division D of this Act. Has provisions for small business and innovation
To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2013 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe military personnel strengths for such fiscal year, and for other purposes.
Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act or MAP-21 Authorizes appropriations out of the Highway Trust Fund (HTF) equal to FY2012 federal highway spending levels plus inflation for FY2013 and FY2014. It requires the expenditure of 10% of amounts made available for federal-aid highways and public transportation programs on small business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and requires states to compile annual lists of small disadvantaged business enterprises according to minimum uniform criteria established by the Secretary of Transportation (DOT).
113th Congress (January 3, 2013 – January 3, 2015)
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014. Authorizes appropriations for FY2014 for the Department of Defense (DOD) for procurement for the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, Air Force, and defense-wide activities, in amounts specified in the funding table set forth in Division D of this Act.
This bill is another national Defense Authorization Act for 2015. Authorizes FY2015 appropriations for Procurement for the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, Air Force, and Defense-wide activities, as specified in the funding tables in section 4101 of this Act.
The Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015 provides appropriations for most of the federal government through the end of FY2015 and continuing appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security through February 27, 2015. The Act includes eleven of the twelve regular appropriations bills. Compared to FY2014 levels, the Act increases total funding for seven bills and decreases funding for four bills.
114th Congress (January 3, 2015 – January 3, 2017)
The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2016 provides FY2016 appropriations; extends expiring tax provisions; and affects policies in areas including oil exports, intelligence, cybersecurity, health care, financial services, visa waivers, and conservation.The bill provides appropriations for the federal government through the end of FY2016. The twelve regular appropriations bills included in the divisions of the bill increase discretionary spending above FY2015 levels, which reflects the increased discretionary spending limits included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015.
Directs the Department of Transportation (DOT) to reduce the amount apportioned for a surface transportation program, project, or activity for FY2016 by amounts apportioned or allocated under any extension of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) for the period beginning October 1, 2015, and ending upon enactment of this Act. It involves encouraging innovative practices and development.
This bill directs the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to ensure that CBP partnership programs, such as the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism, provide trade benefits to importers, exporters, and certain other private sector entities that meet program requirements.
Every Child Achieves Act of 2015: This bill reauthorizes and amends the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). The bill addresses issues such as accountability and testing requirements, distribution and requirements for grants, fiscal accountability requirements, and the evaluation of teachers.
The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 authorizes FY2016 appropriations and sets forth policies regarding the military activities of the Department of Defense (DOD), military construction, and the national security programs of the Department of Energy (DOE). Appropriation categories include, Procurement, Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation, Operation and Maintenance, Cooperative Threat Reduction, and more.